Tuesday, January 24, 2012
Actually they only saw a giant elliptical galaxy, JVAS B1938+666, surrounded by a ring. The central galaxy shines at 53% of the frequencies emitted by modern hydrogen. Radio telescopes detect several linked-together small galaxies imbedded in the northern part of the ring. In the southern part of the ring, two small galaxies are lined up radially with the central galaxy. The small galaxies shine at 33% of the frequencies emitted by modern hydrogen. Scientists adjust what is visible to fit their mathematical models of reality. They explain that the small galaxies are really an optical illusion. Allegedly the light from a single background galaxy is bent into a ring and split into several parts by the intense gravity of the central object. In their attempts to explain the scene as an optical illusion, scientists encountered some mathematical difficulties. It was necessary to mathematically add the gravity from a massive invisible galaxy to bend the light into the appearance of linked-together small galaxies in the northern part of the ring.
What if astronomers could just accept the visible evidence that small galaxies are orbiting the elliptical, leaving trails of gas in their wake?
We observe rings around all the giant outer planets within the solar system. The spacecraft Cassini repeatedly photographed the rings and moons of Saturn, some of which are imbedded in the rings. Cassini also photographed the E ring being formed right now today as streams of fine ice and gas are visibly ejected from the south pole of Enceladus. They even detected a huge thin ring of charged particles connecting Enceladus to Saturn that lies at right angles to the rings.
In the neighborhood of the Milky way, radio telescopes detect rivers of gas connected to miniature orbiting galaxies. A river of neutral hydrogen connects the south pole of our galaxy to two miniature companions, the Magellanic galaxies. This suggests that the Magellanic miniatures were ejected from the Milky Way. When a star, or assembly of stars, moves it leaves behind a wake of ejected gas and dust. Evidently companion galaxies were ejected and orbit the parent galaxy.
Telescopic long exposures of the distant sky find a wallpaper of ancient galaxies as they appeared long ago. The light from these ancient galaxies shines at fractional rates of those from modern, local atoms. Some of the ancient galaxies appear to be primordial one-armed spirals. They look like tadpoles with tails made of discrete, equally-spaced clumps. At close ranges we observe how the arms have rotated around more, accelerated out more as the clumps spread out, following each other out in lanes. The closer galaxies shine at bluer spectral frequencies than the primordial ones. Evidently both the star streams and the atomic clocks accelerated together as the stars came out, rotated out, taking up more volume as galaxies intrinsically grew from the insides outwards. We also observe clusters of miniature galaxies packed around a large elliptical. The clusters often contain streaks of gas, evidently the trails left as the miniature galaxies move around their massive parents. In general, the arms of early spirals and the clusters of miniature galaxies shine with different spectral colors than the core of each galaxy or the giant elliptical in the heart of the cluster.
Why is it so hard for astronomers to accept the only history that is visible as it happened, galactic history? Why do they need to invent galaxies made entirely of invisible matter? The scientific universe is 99% made of magical things, such as invisible matter, never detected anywhere. People don’t invent invisible things unless they have some basic creed that motivates them to do so. The Bible predicts that in the last days mockers will come saying all things remain the same. They will obfuscate the age of the plural heavens with this idea - that the properties of all things are fixed. Indeed, science was founded on this very idea, that the essence of substance is changeless. Generations of scientists used this basic assumption to define various entities, such as mass, energy and time, and symbolical ways of “measuring” these undetectable things. Our system works, says the scientist. It works locally because the definitions and most measuring units were contrived with the one assumption: that atoms are immutable and dither with perpetual motion. None of their mathematical constants work in the distant universe without the need for inventing undetectable things like black holes and invisible matter.
What we see in the universe is creation and cosmic history, exactly as described in the biblical text. He created the plural heavens and the Earth first. Yet at that stage the earth was without form until He continued to command light to continue to be. Apparently that is when matter began to take up space as a relation with light. Later He formed the Sun, Moon and stars and placed them in the spreading place, the raqiya. He continues to call the stars to come out in unbroken continuity and no star goes missing. Since we see biblical creation and biblical cosmic history, we can be sure that the Creator will make foolish science, the system that was founded on the idea that all things remain the same. Carefully examine the basic creed of all scientists, that the properties of matter are fixed, not emerging. We see the opposite everywhere in the universe.
Radio image of JVAS B1938+666 come from the Merlin radio telescope. Infrared photos of the ringed system come from the Keck II telescope. The article on the invisible galaxy was produced by Dr. Simona Vegetti and a team of other astronomers.
Tuesday, January 17, 2012
The early philosophers struggled with the problem of change. Their verbal way of referring to things reinforced what they observed in nature, that everything is changing. The problem is that if everything physical is really changing, what is true today would not be the same in some other era and man could not invent a rational science. Only in the west, did philosophers finally “solve the problem of change” by assuming, based on Aquinas and the ticking of clocks, that the essence of all substance is changeless. In the western system, change is limited by the force of this dogma, which I call the western first principle. Scientifically, everything can change. Matter can combine, change state, fuse into new forms, disintegrate through radioactivity or highly energetic collisions. Everything can change except the kind of change Paul describes, which is not allowed in the western system. Lets look at Pauline physics in Romans 8:19 - 22. Paul's use of Greek verbs demonstrates how his physics works.
Paul used two hupotasso verbs. Hupo means under. Tasso means to appoint, to order, to arrange. Polybius used hupotasso for troops under the command of their general. They would instantly, as a unit, together, obey orders because they were arranged in orderly ranks under his command, such as the command to “Charge!”
The first hupotasso verb is aorist (we are not told when), passive, indicative. The creation is under a command to passive transitiveness (mataiotes). This noun is dative, the indirect object. Transitivity was not its original nature, since it is not voluntary, it is commanded to passively arrange itself under the orders of its Creator. (By the way, God's curse is also passive in Genesis 3. He cursed the ground and the animals passively, they were commanded to naturally degenerate).
The second hupotasso verb is also aorist (no reference is made to time with this verb form) but it is active and a participle. We do not know when or for how long, but the universe actively continues to obey in an orderly manner God's command to become transitive.
In verse 21 Paul mentions a future liberation, when the sons of God are revealed (see 19). The universe, ktisis, will be freed from its slavery to change (phthora). The philosophers used the word phthora for fundamental change. Aristotle used it for change of a city's constitution. Plato used this for the ongoing change that affects all thing since the beginning, genesis ka phthora. The universe is presently enslaved to an orderly, active change that affects all things, yet it is part of nature, since God's command was passive, “Universe do it to yourself - become transitory.”
In verse 22 Paul uses two Greek together verbs, sustenazo and sunodino, to illustrate how the universe is enslaved to change. Both verbs are present active indicative, showing that the universe continues to actively act in a together manner. The first verb is to moan jointly. If the Romans breached the walls of a city, the population would moan together, because everyone would experience the same horror - communal suffering. The whole universe is communally suffering this enslavement to change. The second together verb is used for simultaneous pangs, concerted together pain, such as the pains of childbirth where many muscles act together, in concert. Every individual part of the universe is changing in a together manner. Actions that work together are known as relational. Relational changes are not logical, since they are not following the laws of cause and effect. Instead everything changes together. For example, when a cell divides, billions of processes of extreme complexity act together to replicate the cell. No part of a cell is indifferent to the actions, all parts work together, relationally.
What is Paul referring to? Origen, a Greek scholar of the 3rd century, in his commentary on Romans believed this is qualitative changes in all things, including the Sun and stars. Modern Christians try to understand this text using the 2nd law. Is Paul predicting the second law of thermodynamics? Not hardly! No one in that era could even imagine such a law. Furthermore, (1) the second law is not universal. Scientists never apply it to the internals of atoms. (2) The second law is not orderly, it is random disorder. (3) The second law is not concerted, simultaneous relational change.
We observe what Paul stated locally and in the distant sky. Every atom in billions of galaxies is enslaved to change, to becoming transitive. The change is concerted and relational. Ancient atoms clocked tiny fractions of the frequencies of modern atoms. We confirm that this goes on even today because when we sent the Pioneers out of the solar system, their clock signals transmitted hours ago kept changing with distance in the same direction and at approximately Hubble's ratio. Astronomers use this ratio to estimate the distance to a galaxy using its observed atomic clock frequencies. Evidently every atoms, near and far, is changing in a together, relational manner, as we observe.
It is not just the light that changes. We also observe what God says He continues to do, call the stars to come out and spread out the plural heavens (the galaxies) in unbroken continuity. We observe that many early galaxies were tiny and naked, without starry appendages. These early galaxies are often clustered in the neighborhood of massive elliptical galaxies, from which they evidently emerged. We observe at many ranges how galaxies intrinsically grew, the stars continuing to come out and spread out, orbits accelerating along with the atomic clocks.
Clearly there is order in the universe. Every atom has an orderly nature. Yet atoms and their properties are both observed to change, the space matter takes up and its inertial properties appear to change along with the light frequencies as galaxies intrinsically spread out. Look at the heavens and you will see the glory of God. He is powerful and wise, so wise that He makes foolish the wise of this age.
The picture is a painting from Rafael, painted in 1515. He depicts the Apostle Paul arguing before the assembled Athenian philosophers, the assembly of Areopagus on Mars Hill.
Wednesday, January 11, 2012
1. Early people had non linear ideas about time. Flavius Josephus lists several historians from the classical age who agreed that the record showed the first generations lived for a thousand years. Ovid wrote that the first people lived before new seas formed and slept their lives away. Hesiod recorded that children from the silver generation played at their mother's knee for a hundred years. He groaned that in the iron age people never stopped laboring by day and dying by night. He believed this deterioration would continue until children were born with graying temples. Jacob stated in Genesis 47:9 that the days and years of the children are shorter and worse than the days and years of the fathers. Job, in chapter 14, moaned that man who is born of woman is of few days, yet he ascribed geological ages to those days. He mentions moving mountains, water wearing away stones, the dust of the earth washing away and the dried sea (Hebrew west) as markers for the shortness of life. Drill cores show layers of deep sea oozes alternating with gypsum and salt, showing that the Mediterranean dried repeatedly. In some deep basins the salt layers are more than a thousand meters thick. Cores from Cairo show that the Nile was once a 8200-foot deep canyon cut through rock as it flowed down into a largely empty Mediterranean basin. Job described dinosaurs in the rushing waters of the Jordan. He mentions people’s faces deformed, shanah paniym, before they died. The skull is the only part of our skeleton that keeps growing with age. If we lived for geological ages, we would grow Neanderthal brows. Is it significant that Neanderthal children had skulls more like ours than those of their elders?
2. Those who think that the first generations lived for eons cannot imagine that matter has an unchanging essence. Ovid told a story of the second Roman king traveling to Croton to meet Pythagoras. The story is factually unlikely, since they lived in different centuries, yet it encodes the way of thinking of that era. Ovid has Pythagoras state, "Nothing keeps its original shape and nature, ever renewing the world, creates new forms from the old ones endlessly. Believe me when I say that nothing perishes, ever, anywhere in the world. Rather, things change; they make their forms anew; and to be born simply means that something is other than it was before; to die, that it has ceased to be what it was. While things change from one state to another, now to this one, now to that one, the sum of things stays constant. But truly, nothing keeps the same for long, or so I believe. Thus it is, O ages past, that you have gone from gold to iron . . . Metamorphosis Book 15.” Claudius Ptolemy agreed that mathematics tracks with the changing nature of things. "It is an attribute of all existing things without exception, both mortal and immortal: for those things which are perceptually changing in their inseparable form, it (mathematics) changes with them, . . ." "physics (is guesswork) because of the unstable and unclear nature of matter; hence there is no hope that philosophers will ever be agreed about them." (Ptolemy's Almagest Book 1).
The idea that substance has an intrinsic fixed nature took centuries to develop even after Thomas’ invented the notions of being and essence. The ticking of pendulum clocks was instrumental in bringing on the idea that the essence of all substance is changeless. Newton’s time was mathematical, no longer heralded by crowing roosters and the setting sun, but by the assumption that clocks are linear, made of matter whose essence is changeless. Modern scientists derive most of their empirical definitions, measuring units and mathematical constants by assuming that atoms are intrinsically immutable and dither with perpetual motion. Almost everything scientists do and think is based on the notion that things have an intrinsic essence, an unchanging being.
We can test the scientific first principle with the light from ancient galaxies. Not a single only of the hundreds of billions of ancient galaxies shone with the light frequencies of modern hydrogen atoms. The most-distant spectra analyzed to date shone at one tenth the frequencies of today’s atoms. When we sent calibrated clocks out of the solar system on the Pioneers, the frequencies transmitted hours ago increased their differences, compared to NASA’s hydrogen maser clocks of the moment, with distance. The ratio of how the Pioneer clocks kept changing with distance approximated the Hubble ratio that astronomers use to estimate the distance to far way galaxies using the observed atomic clock rates. Scientists have filled the universe with ridiculous vacuums that stretch light and four times as much invisible matter as the natural kind because atoms are not supposed to intrinsically change their essence as they age.
The only place where we see history as it happened is in galactic history. Not only did ancient atomic clocks tick at slower rates, but ancient orbits also accelerated. We observe how many ancient galaxies were naked and tiny, without starry appendages. We observe, at closer ranges, how equally spaced globs came out, spread out, rotated out as innumerable galaxies grew into huge growth spirals. Evidently the atomic clocks accelerated along with the accelerating star streams as galaxies grew, intrinsically taking up more volume. Visibly, the properties of all matter keep on changing relationally throughout cosmic history.
This is a composite picture of ACT-CL J0102-4915, from NASA. It shows an enormous galaxy cluster nicknamed El Gordo, shining from the ancient universe. Two tails of small galaxies spread out from a large elliptical at one end. The blue in the picture is from intra cluster gas shining in X-rays, as recorded by Chandra. Red and green represent infrared taken by Spitzer and visible light recorded by the VLT telescope. Gas trails are observed among the dozens of small spiral galaxies in the twin tails of the cluster. Scientists claim that galaxy clusters have 10 times as much invisible matter as what we see from light. Some astronomers claim the invisible matter is bending the light from more distant galaxies so that they only appear to be in the neighborhood of the cluster. Others think that the invisible matter is also causing small galaxies to fall inwards, forming the twin tails. How much simpler to accept that matter is intrinsically changing its properties throughout cosmic history as galaxies spread out. The earliest matter was tohu bohu, compact and formless. We confirm this on our own planet because the continents only fit together on a tiny globe, without major seas. New sea floor continues to emerge from the molten interior of the Earth along a global expansion seam. The theory of subduction is clearly denied by the layered undisturbed sediments in the subduction zones. Evidently Thomas was wrong; being and essence were figments of his imagination.
Friday, January 06, 2012
The Greeks also did not have a simple word for the nature of material things. Aristotle used the verbal phrase “on e on” to refer to the properties of things as well as the things themselves. He used wood (hyle) for matter and morphe for its form. He thought hyle continued to change its form like a child growing in the womb. The Greeks used a noun, ousia, formed from the present participle of einai, to show things participating in some property. A person might participate in the property of being wealthy.
Because Parmenides insisted that things cannot be actually changing, the philosophers began searching for something unchanging. However, everything visible was changing. The atomists imagined that indivisible things (atoms) are not changing. Yet they admitted that everything continues to wear out with old age because the tiny bits of stuff collide and degrade their structured arrangements. Aristotle claimed that hypokeimenon (what lies under) does not change. Hypokeimenon, like an atom, is undetectable. Because ancient Greek had no simple nouns for unchanging being and fixed essence, the philosophers were unable to resolve the problem of continuing change, that everything in nature is in flux.
Today we can describe the state of existing with the noun “being.” We also use the noun “essence” to describe a substance’s fixed, predominant properties. How did we arrive at noun concepts about unchanging being and essence that did not exist for the first philosophers?
Seven hundred fifty years ago, Friar Thomas wrote voluminously promoting Aristotle’s system as the basis for a Christianized philosophy. His book “On Being and Essence” begins by explaining that a small initial error leads to big errors in the end. This is why it is important to understand ente and essentia, being and essence. Thomas wrote in Summa Theoligica that God’s name, I AM, shows that He is pure, unchanging Being, perfectly good. He does not just posses goodness, as a one possesses property. Created beings, however, participate in the ten Aristotelian categories and therefore have separate characteristics of being and essence. Later, Friar Scotus argued that we never see a thing apart from its properties, so being and essence are one and the same. The Latin notions of being and essence simplified Aristotelian metaphysics. Western science was founded on the notion of the enduring stability of being and essence.
One invention contributed greatly to the western notion that the essence of substance is changeless. During the thirteenth century, monks built weight driven clocks for calling the faithful to prayer, however, they were quite irregular. In the seventeenth century, pendulum clocks constructed with verge escapements, balance wheels and deadbeat escapements ticked with monotonous regularity. The regular ticking suggested to western ears that the essence of substance is changeless. Newton used the idea that matter is intrinsically unchanging to imagine that time runs at a fixed rate, independent of anything else. His calculus was based on the notion that some things change independently. Indeed, when scientists used clocks to measure orbits, they found that they are clock-like. Today most scientific empirical units are scaled from atomic seconds, such as the length of a meter, velocities, accelerations, the mathematical laws of motion. The idea that the essence of substance is changeless became the foundational principle for western empirical science.
Nineteen hundred fifty years ago, Peter predicted that mockers will come in the last days claiming that all things remain the same (panta houtos diamenei). They will use this idea to obfuscate (lanthano) the history (age) of the plural heavens (evidently the galaxies) and Earth’s watery geology. This prophecy has come true. Scientists cannot accept what is visible, that every atom shining from billions of ancient galaxies clocks a different frequency from modern atoms. They claim that space time, something never detected, is stretching the vacuum of space which allegedly alters the frequencies of passing light. They claim that the universe contains four times as much invisible matter as the visible kind because the orbits in billions of galaxies are violating their gravity laws. They claim 70% of all cosmic processes come from an expanding vacuum that pulls energy out of the vacuum to expand itself. The expanding vacuum pushes distant galaxies away at near light speed. They even believe that a tiny bit of vacuum exploded and created everything out of nothing. The scientific universe is 99% magical and invisible because the structure of empirical, mathematical science was built on the idea that the essence of substance, its being, what it intrinsically is, is not continuing to change in an orderly manner.
Where did this idea come from? The Greeks tried to invent science but they failed because of their verbal, dynamic notions of reality. The Friars modified Aristotelian thinking with their nouns for being and essence. The monotonous ticking of clocks allowed scientists to invent an empirical mathematical system, based on their firm faith that the essence of all substance is intrinsically unchanging.
The Bible states the opposite. Paul used Greek verbs for orderly submission and together changes to illustrate how the creation is enslaved to change (Greek phthora Romans 8:19 - 22). Indeed, we see with sight that the universe is eons old, just like the Bible so plainly states. We see with our eyes how billions of orbits spread out, accelerated out, as galaxies grew into huge growth spirals. The Creator claims that He is spreading out the plural heavens in unbroken continuity. How could galaxies grow in only 6,000 years? We observe that the properties of matter continue to emerge as the orbits and the clocks both accelerate together. We even see on our planet that the continents only fit together on a tiny globe. The Bible states three times that the earth spreads out in unbroken continuity. Job mentioned how the sea, Hebrew west, dried during one lifetime during the dinosaur age. We verify with drill cores that the Mediterranean dried repeatedly. We even find the skulls of our ancestors with huge thick brows as though they lived for geological eons.
Carefully test the first principle of western science by observing galactic history. How great will be the triumph of the word of God over science, the system that was founded on an elementary creed that the essence of substance is changeless. We observe the opposite - that everything is in flux.
The illustration if from Huygens second pendulum clock published in 1673.