Friday, November 27, 2009
Enceladus is a Saturnian moon about 500 kilometers across, about one-seventh the diameter of Earth's moon. Enceladus is highly reflective, apparently its surface is water ice. Large areas of the moon are heavily cratered while other areas are relatively smooth. Long, parallel canyons separate the cratered areas from the smooth parts. These canyons are up to 200 km long, 5-10 km wide, and one km deep. The groves are extremely complex, smaller groves intersecting like chevrons.
The south pole of Enceladus is tectonically active today. We can see the tectonic activity as it occurs. Four deep, parallel 'tiger paw" groves are active water volcanos. The Cassini spacecraft photographed the plumes from several angles and lighting conditions as they spew ice mist into space. Here is a mosaic of the plumes taken from the Cassini spaccraft. Credit:
Credit: NASA / JPL / SSI , THe mosaic is by Emily Lakdawalla from the Planetary Society. Click here to see a larger version of Emily's imagine. http://planetary.org/image/N00146851_55_rotated_mosaic.png A heat map shows that the four rift valleys are warmer than the surrounding surface. This suggests that warm waters are seeping up through cracks in the ice. Since Enceladus orbits in the densest part of Saturn's F ring, evidently the ring was formed from the moon's tectonic activity. The area between Enceladus' tiger paws is also covered with canyons. These canyons shows evidence that the tectonic features were once much closer together - that they continually spread apart.
The Earth also has a global expansion that continually spews out volcanic basalt. The expansion seam is clearly spreading out new crust - evidenced by a visible separation, new pillow lavas and magnetic stipes parallel to the rift. The expansion seam in many areas has the same contour as the opposite continents. Canyons perpeiduclar to the main rift point back to the continents that used to be together. Some of these canyons look like chevrons, slicing through each other. The continents only fit together on a minuscule planet. The scientific theory of subduction is visibly denied by the undisturbed sediments in the "subduction zones."
What could cause moons and the Earth to grow in size. The wonderful thing about cosmic history is that it is visible. We see the past at many ranges back to near the beginning. Billions of galaxies visibly grew from dense clumps of primordial matter. Evidently the properties of matter are always emerging, since galaxies spread out, took up more space, as the stars accelerated out. Galaxies cannot grow into huge local growth spirals unless the properties of matter continually emerge, change relationally. Of course scientists cannot admit that the properties of matter are changing, since their empirical, mathematical system was historically founded on Aristotle's idea that all things remain the same. If matter is changing relationally, one could not measure it with measuring units that are based on the notion that atoms are unchanging. Yet anyone could see the evidence in billions of ancient galaxies that the properties of matter are always changing relationally. Think about it.
Wednesday, November 25, 2009
Every decade or so someone invents a new theory of gravity, but no one has rivaled Newton or Einstein’s theories. Newton thought that time and space are absolutes, so he speculated that gravity is a force. Einstein thought that time near a massive object varies its speed and this causes the vacuum of space to warp. If one accepts their assumptions and definitions, both versions of gravity seem to 'work' at planetary distances. At subatomic scales scientists imagine that time has a fixed dimension - that all things being equal - atomic clocks dither with perpetual motion. Perhaps this is why space-time does not work at quantum scales.
Recently Petr Horava from UC Berkeley announced a new theory of gravity. Allegedly, at high energies the threads that bind time to space snip. At low energies, the invisible ‘threads’ restitch - so that space and time reconnect. Mathematically, Harava’s gravity seems to match the motions of the planets and computer simulations of ‘quantum gravity ’ Mathematical gravity is always speculative since no one has ever detected gravitons, time, space or gravity in a lab.
Why is Horava’s gravity necessary, since Newton’s system is simpler? Horava’s version of gravity may explain why each galaxy is allegedly surrounded by invisible matter. Perhaps dark matter is just Horava gravity and not invisible matter after all. Perhaps scientists will be able to explain why they believe the universe is expanding with Horava’s theory.
Only biblical physics fits the visible universe, which is unlike the computer simulated universe. The simulated universe is 99% invisible, crammed full of invisible matter and undetectable vacuum forces. Biblical physics is just the acceptance of biblical statements about matter, earth and cosmic histories. According to the Bible, everything in creation is phthora - changing. We can visually compare the rates of ancient atomic clocks with local ones. Not a single ancient galaxy shone with perpetual motion atomic light. We also see how the galaxies formed. They expanded from tiny naked objects made of primordial matter to great spread out growth spirals. At many ranges, we observe that the stars accelerated outward as billions of galaxies grew into huge growth spirals. Billions of galactic star orbits are violating every theory of gravity. Galaxies cannot grow unless the properties of matter are always emerging, which fits the principle in biblical physics. In biblical physics one cannot invent operational definitions of symbolical things like time, energy, mass and gravity. Yet we can see that the properties of matter are always changing relationally.
Even the Earth follows biblical physics. The Bible states that the earth spreads out in unbroken continuity. Indeed a global undersea expansion seam keeps on creating new earth crust. The evidence for subduction, like the evidence for invisible matter, is undetectable. The alleged subduction zones have soft, layered, undisturbed sediments. Millions of cubic kilometers of scrapped off sea oozes and sea mounts are missing in the alleged subduction zones. There are no scarps or volcanic vents in the subduction zones. Evidently subduction is a scientific myth. The myth is needed to protect the assumption that the properties of matter are not emerging.
The picture is from NASA's Hubble Ultra Deep Field. It reveals primordial galaxies beginning to shoot out tails, the beginning phase of how galaxies grew into great local growth spirals.
Saturday, November 21, 2009
Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is a giant elliptical galaxy, the nearest one to us. It is sometimes classified as a lenticular galaxy, since in visible light it looks elliptical but with a dust lane encircling it. The New Technology Telescope in Chile shows a ring of star clusters hidden behind the dust lane. In this composite photo, white is the visible light from stars and companion galaxies that cluster around Centaurus A. An enormous band of long wave radio emissions (shown in red) extends out from the dust band. Two energetic radio jets (shown in green) extend perpendicular to the dust band. The radio frequency cloud covers twenty times the area of the full moon. The blue areas are X-rays. The X-rays show that long ago, highly energetic electrons and protons spread out from this active galaxy. Centaurus A is at the heart of a dense cluster of galaxies.
How do scientists explain the enormous activity around Centaurus A? They claim that a enormous black hole is consuming a spiral galaxy which has resulted in the jets and dark band of dust. Allegedly the black hole contains 200 million suns that have been crushed out of existence by the intense gravity of the hole. Light cannot escape the gravity of the black hole, which is of course why it remains invisible. However, huge jets of matter somehow gushed out into areas containing clusters of small galaxies bathed in X-rays and radio jets.
Biblical physics allows us to accept the visible history of the universe. Biblical physics is just the statements in the Bible about how matter relationally changes. We confirm biblical physics in all parts of the light spectrum. Ancient atoms shone at tiny fractions of the light frequencies of modern atoms. We see how the galaxies formed from dense clumps of primordial matter. The galaxies and galaxy clusters spread out as quasars and stars globs accelerated outward. At many ranges, we see how billions of galaxies grew into great, dusty, growth spirals. Countless globular clusters accelerated out from the primordial cores, circled around, spiraled out, spread out as billions of galaxies formed from the insides outwards. Visibly, both the atomic clocks and the inertial clocks (the star orbits) accelerated outward together.
What is visible conforms to the Hebrew statements in the Bible about how God continually calls the stars to come out, how He spreads out the heavens in unbroken continuity. Carefully examine the first principle of science, the notion that all atoms are perpetual motion engines.
Credit for this photo http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap020812.html X-ray (NASA/CXC/M. Karovska et al.); Radio 21-cm image (NRAO/VLA/Schiminovich, et al.), Radio continuum image (NRAO/VLA/J.Condon et al.); Optical (Digitized Sky Survey, U.K. Schmidt Image/ STScI)
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
Inference is a judgment based on circumstantial evidence or prior conclusions. Astronomers conclude that a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB 090423) happened 13 billion years ago. Certainly they observed the GRB with several telescopes at X-ray, infrared and radio frequencies. Yet the age of the event is an inference because it is based on a prior conclusion. [Each of the expanded boxes is an image of the fading light from GRB-090424 taken at from left to right with the Y, J, H and K filters. The Y filter shows no image while the J, H and K filters show the afterglow of GRB-090424. Since there is no image with the Y filter, this indicates that the light from this ancient afterglow shone at very low frequencies - with no visible light component. Credit: A. J. Levan & N. R. Tanvir]
There are many prior conclusions that commonly affect astronomer's thinking. However, there is one that is the mother of all inferences, the first assumption of science. This assumption came first, the root assumption, the foundational premise, upon which the structure of Western science was constructed. This assumption first came into existence in the mind of a Greek philosopher 2350 years ago. Aristotle insisted that, in order to invent science, we must assume that the properties of all things are fixed. Fifteen hundred years later, Friar Thomas D’Aquino convinced the nascent universities of Europe to adopt Aristotle’s metaphysics. The scholastics simplified Aristotle’s idea, using Latin to: the essence of substance (the intrinsic nature of matter) is fixed. With this basic premise, generations of scientists constructed operational definitions, empirical measuring units, logic, methods, constants and mathematics.
The reason the age to GRB-090423 is an inference, based on circumstantial evidence, is because it depends on Aristotle’s first principle that the properties of matter are fixed, not emerging. What if we observe the universe without this inference? We would instantly get rid of the 99% of the scientific universe that has never been observed at any frequency. Scientists fill the universe up with invisible matter and numerous, undetectable, vacuous processes because they analyze every observation with the inference that the properties of matter are fixed, not emerging. For example, they claim that the vacuum of space-time is doing prodigious amounts of work - stretching itself as it moves all galaxies and adjusts all light frequencies. Yet no one has ever observed expanding vacuums or vacuums that affect the frequencies of passing light.
We can see the past at many ranges (eras) throughout cosmic history. We observe in billions of examples that ancient galaxies shone with light clocks that ticked at tiny ratios of the frequencies of local atomic clocks. In general, the frequencies keep on accelerating the closer the light clocks are to us. The most powerful evidence against the inference that the properties of matter are fixed, is the way galaxies grew. Primordial galaxies were dense and naked, without spiral appendages. Then at closer ranges we observe little equally spaced star clusters beginning to come out of the primordial cores. At many ranges, we observe that atomic clocks continually accelerate concurrently with accelerating star orbits. Billions of galaxies grew, from the inside out, into huge dusty growth spirals. Our own planet also has clear evidence that it once was minuscule. A huge expansion seam continually creates new basaltic sea floors. The continents only fit together on a tiny planet. The theory of subduction is a prior conclusion, since the drill ships found soft, layered undisturbed sediments in the “subduction trenches.”
It is critical to distinguish between observations and inferences. Scientists are so thoroughly trained to follow the scientific inference that they never examine it or test it. Scientists measure reality with an inference. Yet if the properties of matter are emerging, even their measurements and mathematics would track with the changing atoms. We directly compare the past to the present is in the distant heavens. It is in the starry heavens that we observe that the properties of matter are always relationally changing. Test the prior conclusion of scientific reasoning.
Wednesday, November 11, 2009
In order to assign causes and effects in the universe, or interpret its history, one must have a worldview. A worldview is a set of assumptions that allows its disciples to interpret the world. Every thinking person must be a fundamentalist. Fundamental assumptions are rarely examined, they are just assumed, since they are the model of reality accepted by a civilization. The fundamental must answer the question, what is the nature of physical reality?
The Western system is based on a fundamental assumption first suggested by a pagan Greek. Aristotle wrote that we must assume that the properties of all things are fixed. He commanded his disciples to build all knowledge on changelessness, even though none is observed. Fifteen hundred years later, friar Thomas wrote voluminously arguing that Christians should build their university learning on Aristotle’s metaphysics. The scholastics simplified Aristotle’s ideas. The fundamental assumption became: the essence (what something intrinsically is) of substance is changeless. Over the last few centuries, westerners built a great scientific structure on Aristotle’s metaphysical idea. They invented operational definitions for allegedly measuring time and many other symbols, a mathematic and scientific methods. Western science was built on the fundamental notion that the intrinsic properties of matter are fixed, not continually emerging.
The Bible cuts right to the heart of scientific fundamentalism - by exposing its prime assumption. The Bible predicts that in the last days false teachers will come. They will interpret earth history and astronomy with an idea - that all things remain the same (2 Peter 3:3 - 6). The Bible contradicts this idea, spelling out that the whole creation is in bondage to phthora. The Greeks used phthora for the process of change that began at genesis and corrupts all things. Biblical physics is based on this biblical fundamental. Biblical physics needs no complex mathematics. It does not define precision measuring units. Yet we confirm biblical physics with light. According to the Bible, light is phanero. It reveals the truth and exposes error. The Apostle Paul said that everything that is visible is light - phos estin. According to the Bible, all the substance in the heavens and earth had no form until God commanded light to continually be.
How should we understand the universe’s history using the fundamental of biblical physics? We understand it with light. We can see all the way back to the beginning of the universe. Ancient light confirms biblical physics, that all substance is changing in a relational manner. Atomic clocks in billions of galaxies keep on accelerating their clock frequencies the closer they are to us. How do we know that it was not the vacuum of space that adjusted the light as it traveled through the void, as scientists believe? We can see a biblical cosmic history with our eyes. We can see that primordial galaxies were compact, without extended shapes.
We see at many ranges, how the stars came out, spread out, accelerated out as billions of galaxies grew into huge growth spirals. Compare this primordial two armed spiral with the local one, M51, at the beginning of this blog entry). Scientific fundamentalists cannot countenance the visible history of the universe because it violates their fundamental creed. Their universe is allegedly 25% invisible matter. Most of the rest of their universe is a vacuous substance appropriately called dark energy. Only 1% of the scientific universe is allegedly visible. They speculated about vacuum explosions, vacuums with invisible black holes in them, vacuums that stretch light and a universal vacuum that pushes galaxies to close to the speed of light. All of these unnatural things were contrived mathematically to support their fundamental assumption that the intrinsic properties of matter are not emerging, changing as matter ages. Look at the universe’s light! What is visible is biblical cosmic history as spelled out in the Hebrew verbs and descriptive nouns. Look!
Tuesday, November 10, 2009
During the summer of 2009, the Hubble Telescope used its new Wide Field Camera 3 to photograph the Abell 370 cluster. The new camera can record near infrared, visible and ultra violet light. Here is a Hubble photo of the south end of the Abell 370 cluster.
An Abell cluster has at least 30 small galaxies bunched around one or more large ones. The space within Abell clusters gleams in X-rays, such as in the Perseus Cluster (Abell 426). X-rays are produced when high speed electrons collide with protons in space. The most energetic X-rays in the Perseus Cluster center around NGC-1275. Here is a Hubble picture of this energetic galaxy showing gaseous filaments radiating outwards. The X-rays and visible filaments indicate that this giant elliptical galaxy is ejecting gas streams and energetic particles into space.
Abell 370 is the most-distant cluster in the Abell catalog. Its light shines at about 3/4ths the frequencies of local atoms. The cluster is egg-shaped with the long axis passing through two large elliptical galaxies. X-rays pervade the cluster, but the strongest concentrations are near the large elliptical galaxies. In visible light, elliptical galaxies look like fuzzy eggs, but X-ray can reveal an internal structure. This is an X-ray image of the elliptical NGC-4679. The large light-blue oval is the elliptical galaxy. X-rays show that inside the galaxy resides a bright nucleus and strings of equally-spaced star clusters.
Numerous equally-spaced galaxy chains, blue streaks and arcs, surround the large elliptical galaxies in the Abell 370 cluster. The galaxies in each string have equal spacing like beads on a necklace. The galaxy chains also have similar colors and brightness. Examine the first picture again. You can see that the large elliptical has two jets, one of which has a tiny glob of stars at its terminus. The X-rays, galaxy chains, jets, streaks and arcs suggest that small galaxies were ejected from the large ones.
Look carefully at the great red arc in Abell 370. The red stream shines at 58% of the light frequencies of local atoms. The red arm links back to a spiral galaxy. A string of blue globular clusters arches around the left side of the galaxy's nucleus. Another spiral arm emerges from the right side and the two arms combine into the great jet. The jet contains blue star globs and blue streaks. The extended galaxy arm bends around four small galaxies. Why are there so many small galaxies in such a small space? This entire region gleams in bright X-rays, indicating intense activity. Evidently small galaxies are ejected from the larger ones. The spiral galaxy is ejecting streams of blue star clusters and gas outward. Compare this with the long spiral arm of the closer galaxy - Arp-295 in this image.
The history of the universe is the only history that is visible by comparing the light from billions of galaxies at many ranges (eras). We can even compare primordial galaxy clusters with closer ones. The farthest known galaxy cluster is JKCS041 that is also bathed in X-rays. It has a central elliptical and a huge X-ray jet surrounding a second, smaller elliptical galaxy. We can clearly see strings of equally spaced galaxies within the cluster. JKCS041 appears to be an early version of Abell 370 when only a few galaxy chains had emerged from the giant elliptical galaxiess. See previous blog entry to see a picture of JKCS041.
We also see, in deep astronomical pictures, that the earliest primordial galaxies were naked, without extended features. At closer ranges we see globs of stars arching around the primordial cores forming tadpole tails and the early stages of barred two-armed spirals. At many ranges, we see that clusters of stars accelerate outwards, rotate around more, follow each other out in lanes as countless galaxies grew into dusty growth-spirals. Here is a face on spiral galaxy in the Abell 370 cluster. Notice that it is ejecting a long spiral arm complete with red gas and periodically spaced blue star globs. The arm bends around a nearby elliptical galaxy and ends in a tiny yellow glob. Gas and stars cannot accelerate continually outward unless the properties of matter are changing. Indeed the light from ancient atoms visibly changes its clock frequencies throughout cosmic history.
Scientists cannot accept the visible evidence that matter is always changing its properties. This is because their system of measuring and mathematicating was built on a historical assumption that the properties of matter are fixed, not emerging. It is not surprising that they claim that the streaks and arcs in Abell 370 are the light from a background galaxy that is bent by the cluster's gravity. They even claim that a great deal of invisible matter resides in the cluster in order justify their speculation about a 'gravity lens'. Yet anyone can see the strings of ejected galaxies. Anyone can see evidence that individual galaxies eject star streams and gas jets. Galaxies cannot grow and clusters cannot spread out unless the properties of matter are emerging.
Carefully examine the basic assumption upon which science was historically founded. The visible history of the universe shows that the properties of matter are always changing relationally. When atoms change relationally, all their properties change together, in parallel.
Think about it!