Wednesday, October 28, 2009
In 2006, astronomers discovered a distant galaxy cluster, probably containing less than twenty galaxies, which they called JKCS041. Galaxies are usually associated in a group called a cluster - many smaller galaxies surrounding one or more giant ellipticals. The smaller galaxies are often arranged in filaments around the ellipticals. Even after a 12-hour exposure using the VLT telescope, scientists could not read the spectra from JKCS041. Therefore, they used its color (photo-z) to estimate that the light left 10.2 billion years ago. The photo-z shows the galactic light shines at about 1/3 the frequencies of local atoms. How do they know the cluster is not just an accidental alignment of galaxies at various distances along the line of sight? Active galaxy clusters are immersed in a thin cloud of high temperature gas that shines in X-rays.
This is a composite image of JKCS041. The blue cloud is an X-ray image from the Chandra Space Observatory. The white galaxies were photographed by the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in Chile. X-ray light pervades the cluster and also projects out in a jet. At the center of the jet is a large galaxy. A string of five equally spaced galaxies spirals around the central elliptical.
Modern scientists always deduce their cosmologies from physics. Yet modern physics was historically built on an assumption. When examining a cosmic theory, always ask yourself, how does this assumption affect the theory? The modern metaphysical assumption is: the essence, the intrinsic nature, of substance is fixed. Even scientific measuring and mathematicating depend on the assumption that the properties of matter are not changing relationally - emerging.
The scientific cosmos allegedly began with an explosion of vacuum energy that created everything out of nothing. Supposedly this produced a vast cloud of diffuse gas about 13.5 billion years ago. By their estimates, we observe JKCS041 as it appeared less than four billion years after the big bang. This means that stars needed to condense, gravitate into galaxies and collide to form clusters relatively quickly.
Biblical physics depends on a different metaphysical principle: that everything in creation is in bondage to phthora - continuous change. We actually see the past in the distant universe. We see literally billions of ancient galaxies as they existed long ago, through many eras. No ancient galaxy shines with the light frequencies of modern atoms. The most powerful evidence for biblical physics is how the galaxies and galaxy clusters formed. The light from the earliest galaxies shows naked objects without spiral structures. Apparently they were densely packed with tiny stars because closer galaxies have distinct blue globs of stars around the cores. At many ranges, we observe how the globs accelerated outward in lanes, spread out, orbits not closing but opening, as billions of spiral galaxies grew into huge, local, growth spirals. We often find these primordial galaxies aligned in filaments or equally spaced chains. Apparently this was the stage when clusters began to spread out. The visible evidence suggests that clusters formed as strings of galaxies were ejected from ellipticals or active galactic nuclei (AGNs). What we see in the universe denies the historical assumption which serves as the foundation for modern physics. We see that the inertial properties of matter, the space it takes up, and its internal atomic frequencies all change relationally (together) throughout cosmic history.
In my next essay, I will examine a closer cluster to see how it differs from the ancient one. Carefully consider whether the basic assumption upon which science was founded is false.
Saturday, October 24, 2009
Three times, in recent weeks, the Opportunity rover drove up to a large nickel–iron meteorite on Mars. This is a picture of Mackinac, large enough that it is visible from orbit. (Click on the image to see a higher resolution picture). Most of the meteorite is smooth, shiny metal. One side has an irregular hole with angular projections around the edges. (The shadow shows the projections). Perhaps that portion was ferric and consequently dissolved in the acidic sea. We know that this plain was once an acidic sea because of the billions of hematite berries. Notice that the berries cover the ground and some have accumulated in the sedimentary rock cracks. If you look carefully, you can see a few metallic shards near the bedrock, perhaps carried there by dust devils, small twisters. Notice that there is no crater. The two Martian rovers have approached six Ni-Fe meteorites lying on the surface.
Natural nickel-iron is never found on the surface of the earth unless it fell from the sky. Planetologists believe the Earth’s core is molten nickel and iron, which may explain why we have a magnetic field. Only by crushing a planet, can its core rain down on other planets.
A Babylonian tablet describes the crushing of Tiamut. It claims that Marduk’s “north wind” (a moon?) struck Tiamut and spit her in pieces. The seafaring Canaanites mention a multi headed sea serpent from a planet war. Each large piece of a shattered watery planet would have a vapor trail. Initially the vapor trails would combine into a single tail, perhaps looking like a seven headed sea serpent to the Canaanites. The Bible uses some of the very same words as the Canaanites in describing a catastrophic event. Job 26:11-14 "The pillars of heaven tremble and are amazed at His rebuke. He quieted the sea with His power, and by His understanding He shattered Rahab. By His breath the heavens are cleared; His hand has pierced the fleeing serpent. Behold, these are the fringes of His ways; and how faint a word we hear of Him! But His mighty thunder, who can understand?"
We should always interpret the Bible in its cultural and historical context. Every ancient society believed in a planet shattering. The phrase ‘pillars tremble’ describes a violent earthquake. However, it was not the earth that was shaken, but the heavens. God himself cleared the heavens, quieted the sea and pierced the fleeing serpent. It was by His understanding Rahab was shattered. Rahab means the mighty, stormy one. Isaiah also used the word Rahab with respect to a planet shattering. He wrote that it happened in the generations of long ago.
Why does Mars have many Ni-Fe meteorites? Perhaps Mars passed through the debris field from the shattered planet. Most of the asteroids orbit between Mars and Jupiter and they always have irregular shapes as though they are pieces of a shattered planet. The asteroid Eros used to have water on its surface. Comets have high temperature rocks like olivine and calcium aluminum that form at high temperatures. Some asteroids contain basalt, a high temperature volcanic rock the forms the undersea crust on Earth. Comets also have sedimentary materials like limestones that form under water on Earth.
It is unscientific to suggest a planet shattering during historical times. It is unscientific because science was built on an assumption, invented by an ancient Greek. The Catholic scholastics adopted and simplified this idea as: the essence of all substance is changelessness. Yet we can see all the way back to the earliest ages of the universe. The matter in every ancient galaxy shines with different light frequencies from modern, local matter. We also observe how the galaxies formed, as stars accelerated, spiraling outward. Billions of galaxies started out as naked, compact bodies packed with stars and grew into huge, dusty, growth spirals. If the same laws of nature are in effect locally, then Solar system orbits and atoms also have changed in the same manner as we see them change in the distant universe.
Biblical earth history fits what we observe in nature, but it does not fit scientific stories about beginnings.
Think about it.
Saturday, October 17, 2009
The Herschel Space Telescope's 3.5m meter mirror focuses light on three infrared instruments. Herschel can see, in infrared, distant primordial galaxies or local stars hidden within dust clouds. On September 3, 2009, Herschel used a scanning mode to record the far infrared light from a section of the Milky Way near the Southern Cross. This is part of a the picture it took, courtesy of ESA. I adjusted the brightness, lightness and contrast to emphasize the star streams that are normally hidden by galactic dust clouds.
According to accepted scientific theories, the universe was once a dense ball of primordial plasma. As the universe expanded, atoms formed and gravitated together - the densest clouds condensing into stars. Stars then gravitated into galaxies. Is it possible for clouds to gravitate into a river of equally spaced stars? Why do star-streams look like links on a chain? Local equally spaced astronomical objects, such as comet Shoemaker-Levy-9, spread out by fragmentation, not by accretion. (This picture of the shattered comet is a panorama from the Hubble Space telescope).
The universe's history is visible, unlike any other history. We can see the past through the eons to near the beginning of the universe. This allows us to test the theory of condensing stars by comparing the shapes of galaxies at many ranges. If space clouds are star factories, we should observe early (distant) galaxies condensing from diffuse nebulae into more compact forms. Deep telescopic vistas HUDF 4491show naked galaxies often linked together in equally spaced chains. At closer ranges, we see galaxies with short appendages like tadpole tails.
This is a primordial galaxy sporting a tail of equally spaced blue star clusters (Hubble Ultra Deep Field galaxy 4491). Notice that the galaxy's tail looks like a bent stream of blue tracer bullets. When we compare galaxy shapes at many ranges (eras), we see that clusters spread out, accelerate out, the orbits opening not closing, making more turns as galaxies grew into huge, local growth spirals. This visible evidence is not trivial since the universe has at least a hundred billion galaxies. Evidently stars did not condense from dust, but rather they were ejected from compact galactic cores and spread out to form local, diffuse growing galaxies.
Here is another example of star streams in the Milky Way. In 2009 the Hubble space telescope was repaired for the last time, receiving a new camera that can record a much wider spectrum. Here is a Hubble picture of the Carina Nebula. In visible light, one sees towering pillars of gas and a turbulent dark cloud. Astronomers claim that Carina's gases are birthing stars. Scientists sometimes describe the Carina nebula as the most intense star birthing area in the Milky Way.
Here is what the new Hubble camera sees in the same area in infrared. The clouds of dust that obscure visible wavelengths, show up as a bluish veil in this infrared picture. Notice that two diametrically opposing jets emanate from a bright star. The actively ejecting star is almost obscured by clouds at visible wavelengths. The jets have equally spaced globs, like the ones we see in the arms of primordial galaxies. A star just above the center also has a trail of gas, a wake, as it is evidently moving out from the turbulent center.
The visible evidence suggests that local gaseous nebulae were formed by ejection phenomena, rather than accretion. Indeed, in some parts of the Milky Way, long, strings of stars in single file span several degrees of our sky. We also observe a long river of hydrogen that connects the Milky Way with the Magellanic companion galaxies. Apparently these small companions were ejected. There is no way a small galaxy could pull out a narrow stream of gas from the core of a larger galaxy. The star streams observed by Herschel and Hubble seem to radiate outward. Indeed, they look like beads of dew on a spider's web. This does not fit the notion that the stars are condensing from the gas.
Why do scientists insist that stars are condensing, when the visible history of the universe shows expanding galaxies, jets and star clusters lined up like beads on a string? Why do scientists imagine that the major forces in the universe are invisible matter and undetectable vacuous forces? By their own admission, their universe is almost 99% invisible. The scientific definitions, ways of measuring, methods and laws depend on an elementary assumption. Scientists presuppose that matter has fixed properties, that atoms do not change with age. Yet no ancient galaxy shone with the light frequencies of modern atoms. Indeed we observe at many ranges, that atomic clocks generally accelerate throughout cosmic history. Galaxies also grew from tiny dense objects to great dusty growth spirals, the stars following each other out in lanes. This could only happen if the properties of matter continually emerge. To emerge means to gradually come into view. At many ranges we observe that the properties of matter are always gradually changing, as the galaxies grew. Think about it!